Many groups of consonants and vowels can be described using the feature notation. Fricatives, for instance, can be described as [-son +cont]. This means that the airflow through the speech channel is not completely free (-sonorant) and there is continual/full closure (+continuant). English and Dutch phoneme systems can be described by 14 different features.

- English consonant/vowel system
- Dutch consonant/vowl system

a) Describe with features the following groups of English consonants:

Use 'feat' as a node representing the questioned phoneme.
Every feature is governed by a - or a + node and forms a leaf that node.
Use the abbreviations 'cons', 'son', 'cont', 'ant', 'cor', 'strid',
'round', 'high', 'low', 'back', 'tense', 'voice', 'nas', 'lat'.

/m n ŋ/

syntax tree

/n l r/


/ŋ k g ʃ x ʒ ʋ j/




We can do the exercise the other too, of course. Use the IPA chart/keyboard to enter the correct phonemes. If your answer consists of two or more phonemes do not put spaces between them and order them in the following way:
1) phonemes on higher rows come first, for example /d/ comes before /n/;
2) phonemes more to the left come first, for example /p/ precedes /d/.
If your answer would consist of the three mentioned consonants the correct input would be 'pdn'; 'npd' will be marked as 'not correct' (although in principle this is of course a correct answer).

b) Give the Dutch consonant groups which are described by the following feature clusters:

[+son, -voice]
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[-ant -back]
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[-high -strid]
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